RESIN: Most CIPP (Cured-In-Place-Pipe) installations use a styrene based unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resin. However, there are three different types of resins available for CIPP lining, including polyester, vinylester and epoxy. These styrene based resins have been proven to be safe and reliable and ideally suited for mainline, large diameter CIPP applications. The resin used is typically polyester for mainline lining and epoxy for lateral lines. Since all resins shrink, especially that epoxy resins shrink far less than poly and vinyl ester, and it is impossible to bond to a sewer that has fats, oils, and grease an annular space exists between the new CIPP liner and the host pipe. CIPP liners are generally cured using hot water, steam, or ambient cure. The ambient cure is applied in much the same way as any other kind, with the resin mixture poured into an applicator and then pushed through the pipe to sit for a few hours. The difference is that ambient cure epoxy cures much faster than the standard mixture. Rather than taking 4 to 6 hours for a complete cure, the ambient cure variety typically only takes 2 to 3 hours. Some applications are also cured at ambient temperatures but the size of these liners is limited by the working time of the ambient cure system which typically limits them to spot repair liners or lateral connections or lateral pipes. For hot water and steam cure systems the stability is a function of temperature. For liners that require hours to wet out and install the resin requires sufficient stability to saturate the liner prior to putting it into a refrigerated truck for transport to the job site. Cooling the liner extends the stability of the resin for transportation to the job site and installation of the liner. The CIPP liner is cured by applying heat to the inside of the pipe and it is important that the resin system can cure effectively through the thickness of the laminate and on the outside of the liner that is exposed to the host pipe. There are two common alternatives to styrene based CIPP resins. The first alternative is to replace the styrene in the unsaturated polyester or vinyl ester resin with an alternative reactive monomer. The second alternative is the use of an epoxy resin rather than a styrene based polyester or vinyl ester resin.
Styrene based polyester and vinyl ester resins are the preferred choice for Cured-In-Place-Pipe (CIPP) applications. However, there are situations where a styrene based resin is not appropriate, or not allowed by the customer specifications. Testing has shown that that using styrene based resins in the CIPP process does not pose a significant heath effect for workers or the public. The exposure levels of styrene for CIPP workers and the public are well below the threshold values established by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Today styrene is a high volume commodity chemical with over fifty billion pounds produced annually world wide. One of the potential issues with styrene based polyester and vinyl ester resins is the styrene odor that can be released into the atmosphere
during installation and cure. Styrene has an extremely low odor threshold and for most humans and it can be detected at less than 0.5 parts per million. There have been cases where small levels of styrene, well below any hazardous level, have entered homes or businesses connected to a sewer or drain line being rehabilitated with the CIPP process. For this reason there are some CIPP specifications that do not allow styrene based resins to be used. To meet these specification limits CIPP installers can use epoxy resins, or polyester or vinyl ester resins that use alternative reactive monomers as a replacement for styrene.
Epoxy resins typically have very low odor levels and should not cause any odor issues in CIPP applications. Epoxy resins used for CIPP applications do not fall under the categories of VOCs or HAPs. When using alternative reactive monomers to replace styrene, the choice of the reactive monomer will impact the chance of odors being given off during the installation and cure of a CIPP liner. The potential for a reactive monomer to give off detectable odors will be related to its vapor pressure, boiling point, and odor threshold. The lower the odor threshold for a substance the lower the concentration of that substance required in the air to allow for human detection. The lower the vapor pressure and higher the boiling point of a substance the lower the potential for that substance to be released into the atmosphere. The vapor pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its liquid in a closed container. The boiling point of a liquid the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. Low vapor pressure liquids and subsequently high boiling point liquids are not readily released as vapor into the atmosphere. The cure and stability properties of epoxy resins are dependent on the choice of hardener. It is also important that the proper stoichiometric balance between resin and hardener is achieved. Fast Pipe Lining , provides the proper mix ratios for the epoxy resin and hardener and it is important that the processor maintain these ratios. The final properties of epoxy resins can also be affected by the cure cycle and cure time and temperature.
VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) or HAP (hazardous air pollutants) Free are defined differently by some government bodies. The EPA defines VOCs as any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions, except those designated by EPA as having negligible photochemical reactivity.
No VOC "green" resin eliminates the environmental concerns in lining underground pipes. The No VOC "green" resin allows for the repairing of partially or fully deteriorated pipelines providing consistent quality, fast wet out, trouble-free processing, high strength, and flexural modulus properties. The "green" resin that is the ECO series resin that has no styrene, no volatile organic compounds (VOCs), an no hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). They meet the ASTM F1216 requirements and reduce the likelihood of stress cracking and shrinkage with a lower exotherm in the enhanced version.
Epoxy resins typically have significantly shorter catalyzed stability than polyester and vinyl ester resins. Epoxy resins can have a catalyzed stability of seven hours or even shorter and are generally less than twenty four hours even in a small mass. The catalyzed stability of most polyester and vinyl ester resins used in CIPP applications is closer to forty eight hours or even longer. The exotherm of an epoxy resin is propagated during cure prior to gelation rather than after gelation occurs as is the case for polyester and vinyl ester resins. The exotherm prior to gelation makes the catalyzed stability of epoxy resins very mass sensitive. A large mass of epoxy resin can not dissipate the heat from the exotherm efficiently and the temperature of the resin rises further reducing the stability. The mass sensitivity of epoxy resins can limit the size or length of CIPP liner that is mostly done at our wet-out facility in La Salle, Illinois, kept cooled in a refrigerated truck or trailer for delivery to any where in the USA or Canada. Due to the limited storage time of an epoxy CIPP liner, and is also limited by the short stability, if wet out and installation is not done on-site to minimize the risks, we at Fast Pipelining prepare the specified resin saturated liners at our wet out facility and can be picked at from our facility or it can be delivered to the requested site ready for the CIPP installation and installed without significant risk of premature gelation and loss of the liner.
Types of resin available at FAST Pipe Lining:
Standard Polyester Resin - Styrene base (filled) - Economical use for mainline, large diameter - Available in 5 gallon bucket, 55 gallon drum (500 lbs), and 300 gallons (2500 lbs) tote.
Polyester Resin - (Unfilled) - Use for mainline, large diameter - Available in 5 gallon bucket, 55 gallon drum (500 lbs), and 300 gallons (2500 lbs) tote.
Vinyl Ester Resin - Styrene Base (Filled) - Available in 5 gallon bucket, 55 gallon drum (500 lbs), and 300 gallons (2500 lbs) tote.
Non-VOC Vinyl Ester - Non Styrene Base (Unfilled) - Recommended for residential, schools, restaurants, hospitals & industrial - Available in 5 gallon bucket, 55 gallon drum (500 lbs), and 300 gallons (2500 lbs) tote.
Epoxy Hardener - Part "A" - B4010T - Available per lbs and 50 lbs bucket/pail
Epoxy Hardener - Part "B" - HW1215 - WINTER MIX - Required Gel Time: 12-15 mins - SET TIME: 2 hrs - MASS 150 Grams - Available per lbs and 40 lbs bucket/pail
Epoxy Hardener - Part "B" - HW2025 - WINTER MIX - Required Gel Time: 20-25 mins - SET TIME: 3 hrs - MASS 150 Grams - Available per lbs and 40 lbs bucket/pail
Epoxy Hardener - Part "B" - HS3035 - SUMMER MIX - Required Gel Time: 30-35 mins - SET TIME: 4 hrs - MASS 150 Grams - Available per lbs and 40 lbs bucket/pail
Epoxy Hardener - Part "B" - HS6070 - SUMMER MIX - Required Gel Time: 60-70 mins - SET TIME: 6 hrs - MASS 150 Grams - Available per lbs and 40 lbs bucket/pail
Epoxy Hardener - Part "B" - HT5060 - HIGH TEMP (MUST BE STEAM CURED) - Required Gel Time: 50-60 mins - SET TIME: 5 hrs - MASS 150 Grams - Available per lbs and 40 lbs bucket/pail
Sharkepox Kit - Standard Epoxy Resin - Recommended for general application - 44 lbs Premixed Bucket/Pail
NOTE: All pictures, videos, designs and specifications are subject to change without notice.